ENVIRONMENTAL PAPER PROFILE GLOSSARY
Paper is made from two types of fibres - Virgin & Recycled Fibre.
Virgin Fibre is fibre that has never been used before in the manufacture of paper or other products. It can come from certified or uncertified forests.
Recycled fibre are fibres that have been extracted from existing paper products, to be used in the manufacture of further paper products.
Manufactured with recovered fibre. Recycled fibres have been extracted from existing paper products, to be used in the manufacture of further paper products. Recycled paper can be 100% recycled or mixed with virgin fibre to improve consistency. Recycled fibre comes from two sources: Post Consumer Waste & Pre Consumer Waste.
Post Consumer Waste
Post consumer waste fibre is made from re-processing or de-inking paper that has been used by a consumer. The use of recycled fibre reduces the pressure on forest land and protects its ability to absorb carbon for longer. By using recycled cardboard and paper you are helping to reduce waste that would otherwise go to landfill.
Pre Consumer Waste
Only uses waste from the mill itself, such as mill broke and offcuts. The fibre has not been used by an end consumer.
Currently, there are several reputable third-party organisations that have strict programs in place for the verification and certification of wood sources. These organisations work with wood suppliers around the world to ensure strict guidelines are met to monitor and protect the economic, social and environmental factors surrounding the supply of wood products.
These organisations, including the Forest Stewardship Council and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification, apply these principles and guidelines throughout the entire lifecycle of wood products; from plantation, to manufacturing, to end production of the product. Certifications are then given to products, including paper, that meet these requirements.
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international network promoting responsible management of the world’s forests. FSC works to promote responsible forestry, conserve biological diversity and protect old growth forests. FSC also includes a 'Chain Of Custody' system that tracks paper from the forest, all the way to finished material offering clients complete paper traceability.
FSC Recycled label
Products with a 100% Recycled label support re-use of forest resources and in accordance with FSC standards only use post-consumer recycled wood or fibre.
FSC Mixed Sources label
Products with a Mixed Sources label support the development of responsible forest management worldwide. The wood comes from FSC certified well managed forests, company controlled sources and/or recycled material.
FSC 100% Label
Products with a 100% FSC label come from forests certified as being in compliance with the environmental and social standards of the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC).
PEFC - Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification schemes
The PEFC council is an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organisation, founded in 1999 which promotes sustainably managed forests through independent thrid party certification. The PEFC provides an assurance mechanism to purchasers of wood and paper products that they are promoting the sustainable management of forests.
Bleaching of wood pulp is the chemical processing carried out on various types of wood pulp to decrease the color of the pulp, so that it becomes whiter. There are 3 ways to do this:
ECF - Elemental Chlorine Free
Paper pulp that is whitened, or bleached, using a derivative of Chlorine that does not release harmful dioxins into the environment. Dioxins have proven to be carcinogenic and now studies have shown that mills using ECF bleaching have eliminated dioxins completely from mill effluent. (i.e they are undetectable)
TCF - Totally Chlorine Free
Paper pulp that is whitened, or bleached, using systems other than Chlorine. Alternative bleaching agents include Hydrogen Peroxide and Ozone. The term TCF cannot be associated with recycled papers because it is impossible to know if the fibre was originally whitened using a Chlorine based system
PCF - Process Chlorine Free
Similar to TCF and occasionally referred to as Secondary Chlorine Free (SCF) papers, refers to recycled fibre that has not been re-bleached with any Chlorine based bleach.
There are a variety of internationally recognised Environmental Management System (EMS) monitoring the ongoing commitment to the conservation of natural resources. An EMS is a systematic approach to address businesses’ environmental issues and covers all facets of their operations. It allocates resources and assigns responsibilities and provides for the continual evaluation of practices, procedures and processes. Below are the main EMS Systems:
The International Standardisation Organisation (ISO) developed ISO 14001 as a global environmental management system to assist an organisation to achieve its environmental goals. It guides planning, implementation and operation, checking and corrective action, and management review processes.
The Eco-Management and Audit Scheme, EMAS, is the European Commission’s environmental policy tool for European Union organisations to ensure sustainable development. It has been operating since April 1995, and aims to promote continuous evaluation and improvements in the environmental performance of participating organisations.
A German environmental label, which covers many products, including paper. It takes a ‘cradle to grave’ approach, considering manufacture and disposal as well as product use.
The National Association of Paper Merchants (UK) scheme for recognising paper that contains at least 75% non-wood waste material, such as hemp, straw, cotton, bagasse or linen.
An environmental label encouraging production methods that create minimum environmental impact. Evaluation for paper is based upon strict limits for emissions and effluent from pulp and paper mills.
Fuels such as coal, gas, oil, peat, biofuels (such as bark) or electricity generated by a combined heat and power unit or bought in from the grid. The source of energy can influence the air emissions i.e. coal produces higher emissions than gas. Today renewable energy sources are being used, creating an environmentally friendly approach to power.
Energy sources that can quickly be replaced such as water, sun, wind, geothermal and biomass. Non-renewable energy sources consume carbon or nuclear-based fuels.
Windpower refers to the use of wind-generated electricity. Wind energy is emission free and completely renewable. This form of electricity is generated by resources that produce little or no pollution.
A product and/or operation that have had their carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas emissions;
2) Reduced where possible and
3) 'Offset' through credits that fund renewable, emission free energy products. The Kyoto Protocol mandates that these offsets must be "real, verifyable and additional to what would have otherwise occurred".
Stocks that are 100% manufactured in Australia.